δE = δq + δw
where δE is the i change in internal energy,
δq is the amount of thermal energy added to the system from the surroundings
δw is the l work done *on* the system *by* the surroundings.
For a system only undergoing expansion work,
δw = -pδV, so:
δE = δq - p δV
when δV = 0, then δe=δq
each principal energy level above the first contains one s orbital and three p orbitals. a set of three p orbitals, called the p sublevel, can hold a maximum of six electrons. therefore, the second level can contain a maximum of eight electrons - that is, two in the s orbital and 6 in the three p orbitals.
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