b. the gestalt
According to the Gestalt principle of perception every stimulus is first perceived in its simplest form. And usually the simplest form is the whole, the whole. In this case, Gestalt states that when we organize patterns to perceive an entire stimulus and not just its parts, we are using the perception principle.
The Gestalt principle was developed in the early twentieth century by two famous theorists: Wolfgang Köhler and Kurt Koffka. They noted that the human mind behaves well in its pattern of perceiving the shapes seen in objects, people, scenarios, and everything we see.
Gestaltists claim that upon receiving a visual stimulus, our brain does not receive an isolated sensory arousal, but several complex signals that group all the features we consider similar, quickly summing up all parts of the item seen.