D, rebelling ethic groups
The rise of nationalism swept through many countries during the 19th century, and it affected territories within the Ottoman Empire. A burgeoning national consciousness, together with a growing sense of ethnic nationalism, made nationalistic thought one of the most significant Western ideas imported to the Ottoman Empire. The empire was forced to deal with nationalism from both within and beyond its borders.
the answer is b.2008 and 2012 were presidential election years.
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